Phenological and morphological characterization of local maize from the municipality of Villaflores- Chiapas, Mexico

Autores/as

  • Jaime Llaven-Martínez Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Campus Villaflores-Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, México
  • Ernesto Javier Gómez-Padilla Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Campus Villaflores-Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, México
  • Aquiles Lustein Aguilar-Gallegos Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Campus Villaflores-Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, México.
  • Grisel Sánchez-Grajalez Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Campus Villaflores-Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, México.
  • Eraclio Gómez-Padilla Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Campus Villaflores-Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, México.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54502/msuceva.v3n2a5

Palabras clave:

Biomass, growth, typologies, Zea mays L., varieties

Resumen

Local maize varieties in Mexico play a crucial role in food security, cultural diversity, and agricultural sustainability. These varieties constitute a reservoir of genetic diversity critical for the adaptability of maize to changing climatic conditions. To characterize 12 local maize varieties from the Frailesca Region, Chiapas, an experiment was established under completely randomized field conditions. Evaluated variables included phenological cycle, leaf and root biomass production, plant height, stem diameter, ear shape, and leaf coloration. A Hierarchical Cluster Multivariate Analysis was conducted to group varieties based on their characteristics. A mixed correlation model was used to assess the dynamic proportion of root biomass to total biomass. Two groups were identified based on phenological characteristics: the first type grouped 10 varieties with early traits, and the second type comprised 2 late varieties. Regarding biomass production, three types were found: high biomass production, with 4 varieties; low biomass production, represented by 7 varieties; and one atypically high biomass production variety. Radical biomass increased linearly until 120 days. The variety "Olotillo Amarillo Parral Dos" achieved greater height, while "Macho Totomoxtle Morado" was the smallest. Ear shapes varied between open and semi-open, and the leaf color was an intense green. 

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Biografía del autor/a

Jaime Llaven-Martínez, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Campus Villaflores-Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, México

Part-time professor at the Autonomous University of Chiapas, attached to the Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, Campus V. He is a phytotechnician, agricultural engineer and Master of Science in Tropical Agricultural Production (UNACH-Mexico). Active member of the Academic Body in Sustainable Agriculture, whose line of generation and application of knowledge: "Indicators of Agricultural Sustainability". Undergraduate lecturer in the Agro-Environmental Development, Environmental Livestock and Agronomy training programmes. He has participated in the publication of books and scientific articles.

Ernesto Javier Gómez-Padilla, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Campus Villaflores-Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, México

Doctorate (in progress) in Agricultural Sciences and Sustainability (UNACH). Agricultural engineer (University of Granma-Cuba-1995). Master's Degree in Agricultural Sciences (University of Granma-Cuba-2009). Professor of undergraduate education in subjects related to horticultural crop management, urban agriculture, agroecological production systems (University of Granma-Cuba-2000-2022). Professor in postgraduate academic programmes such as Master in Agricultural Biotechnology and Agricultural Sciences (University of Granma-Cuba-2019-2022). Coordinator of the Master in Agricultural Sciences (University of Granma-Cuba-2021-2022). Fulfilled administrative responsibilities as Head of the Department of Agronomy in the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at the University of Granma-Cuba (2016-2017) and later as Dean of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (2017-2021). He has developed research on the isolation, selection and characterisation of native rhizobial strains and salinity tolerant bean varieties. He has participated in projects related to cereal production and horticultural crops. He has published more than 10 scientific articles in indexed journals.

Aquiles Lustein Aguilar-Gallegos, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Campus Villaflores-Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, México.

Agronomist from the Faculty of Agronomy, Campus V of the Autonomous University of Chiapas. Developed thesis research related to the characterisation of local maize. He has given courses and workshops on the production and use of biofertilisers with beneficial micro-organisms

Grisel Sánchez-Grajalez, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Campus Villaflores-Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, México.

Teacher at the Autonomous University of Chiapas-Mexico, attached to the Faculty of Agronomy, Campus V, where he graduated as an Agronomy Engineer in Plant Production. He holds a Master of Science degree from the Seed Production Programme of the Colegio de Postgraduados. He has always worked on population improvement of tropical and semi-temperate maize breeds; crop production with a sustainable and conservation approach; genetic improvement to obtain improved varieties for industry, as well as their identification and transfer in regions of southeastern Mexico. He develops maize lines that meet the quality requirements of the flour and nixtamal industries. He is part of the working team: Milpa y sus maíces nativos of the Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, and his activities are focused on the maintenance, conservation and ex situ improvement of new maize genotypes for the Frailesca region, Chiapas-Mexico.

Eraclio Gómez-Padilla , Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Campus Villaflores-Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, México.

Part-time professor at the Autonomous University of Chiapas, attached to the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Campus V. He has a degree in Agricultural Administration (UNACH-Mexico) and a Masters in Higher Education Administration (IESCH). He is an active collaborator of the Academic Body in Sustainable Agriculture, whose research line is: "Indicators of Agricultural Sustainability". He has been a promoter of entrepreneurial projects in the educational programmes of Agro-Environmental Development, Environmental Livestock and Agronomy. He has also been a technical advisor in the Sistema Integral Nacional y Desarrollo en Extensionismo Rural (SINDER) programme for the cultivation of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg), where he visited nurseries, plantations in development and in production in the Selva Lacandona and Soconusco regions of Chiapas.

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Publicado

2023-12-01

Cómo citar

1.
Llaven-Martínez J, Gómez-Padilla EJ, Aguilar-Gallegos AL, Sánchez-Grajalez G, Gómez-Padilla E. Phenological and morphological characterization of local maize from the municipality of Villaflores- Chiapas, Mexico . Magna Sci. UCEVA [Internet]. 1 de diciembre de 2023 [citado 26 de febrero de 2024];3(2):156-64. Disponible en: http://revistas.uceva.edu.co/index.php/magnascientia/article/view/88

Número

Sección

Ciencias Biológicas y Agrícolas (Biological and Agricultural Sciences)

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